Ponderosa parkland

Ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir are the most common evergreen trees in this habitat, which forms the lower tree-line zone in the Columbia Highlands. Drought and frequent low-intensity fires maintain a sparse understory, which is usually dominated by grasses and forbs.

An important wintering area for white-tailed deer, ponderosa parkland also provides habitat for white-headed woodpecker, flammulated owl, pygmy nuthatch and yellow-pine chipmunk. However, fire suppression and heavy grazing have altered this biologically rich habitat.

Thirteenmile/Cougar Mountain and Clackamas Mountain roadless areas offer some of the best remaining old-growth ponderosa pine forests in Washington.

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